Jesus won the election at the Council of Nicea in AD 325 and the trinity was invented.
Doctrine of Trinity
According to the first two Ecumenical Councils of Church, God is three gods merged into one God. This one God is called the Trinity. This name of God does not exist anywhere in the New Testament! However, to say that God is three, in Christianity, is a blasphemy of the highest order. All three parts of the Trinity are “coequal”, “co-eternal” and “of the same substance.” In other words, while the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost sustain distinct relationships to one another, they share the same divine nature.
The Trinitarian doctrine of the Gnostic, which was adopted by the Church in 325 C.E. states the following [Joseph Campbell, “The Masks of God: Accidental Mythology”, Penguin Books, New York, 1976, p.389]:
1. We believe in one God, the Father all-Sovereign, maker of all things, both visible and invisible;
2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father, an only begotten;
3. That is, from the essence of the Father,
4. God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God – begotten, not made – being of one essence with the Father;
5. By whom all things were made, both things in heaven and things on earth;
6. Who for us men and for our salvation came down and was made flesh, was made man, suffered, and rose again the third day, ascended into heaven, cometh to judge the quick and the dead;
7. And in the Holy Spirit.
8. But those who say that `there was once when he was not,’ and `before he was begotten he was not,’ and `he was made of things that were not,’ or maintain that the Son of God is of a different essence, or created or subject to moral change or alteration – these doth the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematize.
The Christians have their three Gods responsible for the following duties:
(a) The Father creates and sustains the world.
(b) The son ensures salvation and atones for the sins of man.
(c) The Holy Ghost prepares the human mind for faith and maintains the believer in the state of faith.
The involvement of the Roman Emperors with the Christian Church started with Emperor Constantine. It all started in Rome when he became jealous of his eldest son and heir, Crispus, because of his popularity among the people. To make sure of his position as Emperor, Constantine had him murdered. It was known that the step-mother of Crispus had wanted her own son to succeed Constantine. She, therefore, had the motive for killing Crispus. Constantine accordingly put the blame of his crime on her, and killed her by immersing her in a bath full of boiling water. He hoped to mitigate one crime by the other.
The result, however, was just the opposite of what he had planned. The supporters of the dead queen joined forces with the followers of his dead son, and both sought revenge. In desperation he turned to the priests of the Roman temple of Jupiter for help, but they told him there was no sacrifice or prayer which could absolve him from the two murders. It became so uncomfortable to be in Rome that Constantine decided to go to Byzantium.
On his arrival there, he renamed the city after himself, and called it Constantinople. Here he met with unexpected success from the Pauline Church. They said that if he did penance in their Church his sins would be forgiven. Constantine made full use of this facility for his hands were stained with the blood from two murders. Furthermore, he saw the possibilities of using the Church to his own ends provided that he could win its loyalty to him.
Without hesitation, Constantine gave the Church his full support. With this unexpected backing, the Church became a strong force almost overnight. Constantine made full use of her. The country around the Mediterranean was dotted about with Christian churches and the Emperor utilized them to great advantage in the wars he was fighting. Many of the priests carried out very useful intelligence work for him, and their help was an important factor in his effort to unite Europe and the Middle East under him.
Constantine also made full use of the Church in maintaining discipline in his army. The authority of the bishops was used to ratify the obligation of the military oath. Deserters faced the added threat of excommunication. Partly as a token of his gratitude and partly in order to diminish the power of the Roman priests in the temple of Jupiter who had refused to support him, Constantine encouraged the Christians to open a church in Rome. He also encouraged his subjects to become Christians, promising them not poverty, but wealth:
“The salvation of the common people was purchased at an easy rate, if it be true, that, in one year, 12000 men were baptized at Rome, besides a proportionable number of women and children; and that a white garment, with twenty pieces of gold, had been promised by the Emperor to every convert…” Gibbon, E., “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, 1823, p.458
However, Constantine did not become a Christian himself, for many of his subjects still believed in Jupiter and the other gods in the Pantheon of Rome. In order to ally any suspicions they might have, he made a number of decisions which seemed to prove that he too worshipped the Roman gods. He liberally restored and enriched the temples of the Roman gods. The coins and medals of the Empire were impressed with the figures and attributes of Jupiter and Apollo, of Mars and Hercules.
“…the devotion of Constantine was more peculiarly directed to the genius of the Sun, the Apollo of Greek and Roman mythology; and he was pleased to be represented with the symbols of the god of light and poetry… The sun was universally celebrated as the invincible guide and protector of Constantine.” Gibbon, E., “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, 1823, p.448
The Emperor was considered to be the manifestation of the Sun-god on earth.
Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – had celebrated the Sabbath on Saturday. To please the Emperor, however, the Pauline Church accepted the following changes:
– Declared the Roman Sun-day to be the Christian Sabbath;
– Adopted the traditional birthday of the Sun-god, the twenty-fifth of December, as the birthday of Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him –;
– Borrowed the emblem of the Sun-god, the cross of light, to be the emblem of Christianity;
– And, decided to incorporate all the ceremonies which were performed at the Sun-god’s birthday celebrations into their own ceremonies.
Unity of Church
Constantine, who at this stage neither understood nor believed in Christianity, saw the political advantage of having a united Church which would obey him, and whose center would be based in Rome and not in Jerusalem. When the members of the Apostolic Church refused to obey these wishes, he tried to compel them by force. This pressure from without, however, did not produce the desired result. A number of the Apostolic Christian communities refused to accept the overlordship of the Bishop of Rome. They recognized this move as a political ploy by a foreign ruler, and as something entirely apart from the teaching of Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him –.
The first revolt came from among the Berber communities of North Africa. It was led not by Arius but by a man name Donatus. The Berber always believed in the Divine Unity; they could believe in Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – as a Prophet, but never as God. In 313 CE Donatus was chosen from among the people as their bishop. For forty years he remained the leader of their Church which continued to flourish in opposition to the Bishop of Rome. According to Jerome, “Donatism” became the religion of nearly all North Africa within a generation, and neither force nor argument could change it.
The Bishop of Rome tried to install one of his own bishops in Carthage to replace Donatus. His name was Caecelian. This caused further unrest; the populace of Carthage gathered around the office of the Roman pro-consul and denounced Caecelian. As it was, the North African Christians had little respect for the Roman pro-consul and the other imperial officials. For generations now the Christians had suffered persecution at their hands, and regarded them as emissaries of Satan. Formerly, they had been persecuted because they were Christians. Now, they were to be persecuted because they were not the right kind of Christians. Up until this point, Donatus had been their bishop. He now became their popular leader.
The Church of Rome, which had by now adopted the epithet “Catholic” to indicate the universality of its approach in the worship of God, appealed to the Donatists to unite. The appeal had no effect, and Donatus refused to hand over his churches to Caecelian. The differences in beliefs were too wide to bridge. Finally, the Roman army came into action. There were mass slaughters of people. Dead bodies were thrown into wells, and bishops were murdered in their churches. These events widened the rift between the Donatists and the Catholic Church even further. Since the Catholic Church was working in alliance with the pagan magistrates and their soldiers, the Catholics were called schismatics and their churches were identified as places of “hated idolatry”.
Constantine, who was a good administrator, realized the futility of trying to restore religious harmony and unity by force. Deciding that discretion as the better part of valor, he left the people in North Africa to themselves.
The leader of the Apostolic Church, which continued to affirm belief in One Reality, was at this time a presbyter known to history as Arius. He followed the teaching of Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – implicitly, and refused to accept the innovation introduced by Paul.
“Follow Jesus as he preached” was the motto of Arius. His importance can be gauged by the fact, that, his name had become a synonym of Unitarianism even today.
Although the early life of Arius is hidden in mystery, it is recorded that in 318 CE, he was in charge of the Church of Baucalis in Alexandria. Arius was no “bustling schemer” as his enemies would have people believe, and even they were forced to admit that he was a sincere and blameless presbyter. He remained aloof from the alliance which the organized Church had made with the Emperor Constantine.
At his time, Trinity was accepted by many of those who called themselves Christians, but no one was sure what it actually meant. After more than two centuries of discussion, no one had been able to state the doctrine in terms which were free from equivocation. Arius stood up and challenged anyone to define it. Arius, by the use of reason, and relying on the authority of the Scriptures, proved the doctrine to be false.
Arius began his refutation to the doctrine of Trinity using the following argument: if Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – was in reality the “son of God”, then it followed that the father must have existed before the son. Therefore, there must have been a time when the son did not exist. Therefore, it followed that the son was a creature composed of an essence or being which had not always existed. Since God is in essence Eternal and Ever-existent, Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – could not be of the same essence of God. Arius backed his arguments with numerous verses from the Bible which nowhere teaches the doctrine of Trinity. If Jesus said:
“My father is greater than I,” John 14:28
Then to believe that God and Jesus were equal, argued Arius, was to deny the truth of the Bible.
The arguments of Arius were irrefutable, but Alexander, the Bishop of Alexandria, by virtue of his position, excommunicated him. However, Arius had such a large following that he could not be ignored by the Pauline Church. The controversy which had been simmering for nearly three hundred years came to its boiling point. The Pauline Church was troubled and annoyed that so many of the Eastern bishops supported Arius, whose greatest ally was Eusebius of Nicomedia, for they were friends and both of them had been students of Lucian.
As far as Constantine was concerned, things were going from bad to worse. He was plagued with internal political problems, and the conflict between the Pauline Church and the Apostolic Church was not helping his effort to unify the different parts of the Empire. His experience in dealing with the North Africans seemed to have taught him a lesson: he should not take sides openly. So he decided to call a meeting of Christian bishops in order to settle the matter once and for all. The gathering of the bishops in Nicaea in 325 CE under Constantine is known today as the Council of Nicaea.
Apart from the leaders of the two contending parties, the majority of those who were invited to the Council were not on the whole very knowledgeable. No one from the Church of Donatus was asked to attend, although Caecelian, Donatus’s chief opponent, was invited. Alexander, who was growing old, and who had been routed so many times before by Arius, decided to send Athanasius a young and fiery supporter of Trinity to Nicaea as his representative instead of going there himself.
Thus, the Council was composed largely of bishops who held their faith earnestly and sincerely, but without much intellectual knowledge of the grounds on which they maintained it. These men were suddenly brought face to face with the most agile and most learned exponents of Greek philosophy of the age. Their way of expression was such that these bishops could not grasp the significance of what was being said. Incapable of giving rational explanations of their knowledge or entering into arguments with their opponents, they were to either stick to their beliefs in silence or to agree to whatever the Emperor decided.
The Council dragged on for three months without reaching a definition to Christianity that satisfies the two sides. As the debate continued, it became evident to both parties that no clear-cut decision would be reached on the floor of the Council. However, they still both desired the support of the Emperor since, for the Pauline Church, it would mean an increase in power, and for the North African Church an end to persecution. Princess Constantina, the sister of the Emperor, had advised Eusebius of Nicomedia that the Emperor strongly desired a united Church, since a divided one endangered his Empire. However, if no agreement was reached within the Church, he might lose patience and withdraw his support for Christianity altogether. Should he take this course of action, the situation of the Christians would be even worse than before, and the teaching itself would be endangered even further.
Counseled by their friend Eusebius, Arius and his followers adopted a passive role, but disassociated themselves from all changes to the teachings of Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – the Council agreed to. Under these circumstances, the dogma of Trinity was finally accepted as a fundamental doctrine of Christianity. The Nicene Creed was then drawn up an attested to in writing by those present with the full support of the Emperor Constantine. It enshrined the view of the Trinitarians and had the following anathema appended as a direct rejection of Arius’s teaching:
But those who say that `there was once when he was not,’ and `before he was begotten he was not,’ and `he was made of things that were not,’ or maintain that the Son of God is of a different essence, or created or subject to moral change or alteration – these doth the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematize. Campbell, J., “The Masks of God: Accidental Mythology”, Penguin Books, New York, 1976, p.389
Arius and some of his followers did not sign the creed. Of those who signed it, some believed in it, some did not know what they were putting their names to, and the majority of delegates in the Council, did not agree with the doctrine of Trinity, but, nevertheless, signed with mental reservation, to please the Emperor.
Line of Attack
Constantine knew that a creed which was based not on conviction but on votes could not be taken seriously. One could believe in God, but could not elect Him by the democratic method. He knew how and why the bishops had signed the creed. He was determined not create the impression that he had forced the bishops to sign against their convictions. So it was decided to take resort to a miracle of God to affirm and support the decision of the Council.
The pile of the Gospels-the written record of Jesus’ – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – teaching still lay in the middle of the hall where they had been placed at the beginning of the Council. According to one source, there were at least 270 versions of the Gospel at that time, while other states: there were as many as 4000 different Gospels. Even if one accepts the most conservative record, the number must have been quite overwhelming. The drawing up of a creed which contained ideas not to be found in the Gospels and, in some cases, in direct contradiction of what was in the Gospels, must have made matters more confusing for some people. The continued existence of the Gospels must have been very inconvenient.
It was decided that all the different Gospels should be placed under a table in the Council Hall. Everyone then left the room and the door was locked. The bishops were asked to pray for the whole night that the correct version of the Gospel might come onto the top of the table.
In the morning, the Gospels acceptable to Athanasius (a fiery supporter of Trinity), Alexander’s representative, were found neatly placed on top of the table. It was decided that all the Gospels remaining under the table should be burned.
Unfortunately, there is no record of who kept the key to the room that night!
It became a capital offence to posses an unauthorized Gospel. As a result, over a million Christians were killed in the years following the Council’s decisions. This was how Athanasius tried to achieve unity among the Christians.
In 328 CE, Alexander, the Bishop of Alexandria died and a stormy election to fill the vacant position followed. The Arians put up a strong resistance, but Athanasius was declared, elected, and consecrated as a bishop. His election was disputed. Those who opposed his election complained of persecution, political intrigue and even magic.
Meanwhile, at Constantine’s court, Constantina, his sister, who feared and loved God, continued to voice her opposition to the killing of the Christians. She never tried to hide the fact that she thought Arius represented true Christianity. She also opposed the treatment of Eusebius of Nicomedia who had been banished by the Emperor for his beliefs. At long last, she had her way, and Eusebius was allowed to come back. His return was a great blow to the Athanasian faction. The Emperor gradually began to lean towards the side of Arius.
In 335 CE, a Council was held in Tyre to celebrate the thirtieth year of Constantine’s reign. Here, Athanasius was accused of Episcopal tyranny, and the atmosphere was so charged with feeling against him that he left the Council without waiting to hear what decisions would be made. He was condemned. The bishops then gathered in Jerusalem where the condemnation of Athanasius was confirmed. Arius was taken back into the Church and allowed to receive communion.
The Emperor invited Arius and his friend Euzous to Constantinople. The peace between Arius and the Emperor was virtually complete, and to further this, the bishops again officially condemned Athanasius. Arius was then appointed the Bishop of Constantinople.
Arius, however, died from poisoning in 336 CE. The Church called it a miracle, but the Emperor suspected murder. He appointed a commission to investigate the death which had taken place in such a mysterious manner. Athanasius was found to be responsible, and he was condemned for the murder of Arius.
The Emperor, greatly moved by the death of Arius, and doubtlessly influenced by his sister, became a Christian. He was baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia. But, he died only a year later in 337 CE. Constantine, who had spent so much of his reign persecuting those who affirmed the Divine Unity, died in the faith of those he had killed.
After Constantine’s death, the next emperor, Constantius, also accepted the faith of Arius, and belief in the Divine Unity continued to be officially accepted as the orthodox Christianity. A conference held in Antioch in 341 CE accepted monotheism as the true basis of Christianity. This ruling was confirmed by another Council that was held in Sirmium in 351 CE.
In 360 CE Constantius called the famous Council of Rimini. It was attended by a much larger gathering than the Council of Nicaea. More than four hundred bishops from Italy, Africa, Spain, Gaul, Britain and Illyricum attended the Council. The majority of the bishops were from the Official Church. However, a creed drawn up by the Arian bishops which stated that the `son’ was not equal or consubstantial to the father, was agreed to by the assembly. It was on this occasion that, according to Jerome, the world was surprised to find itself Arian. This creed was ratified in the Council of Seleucia. However, when the Official bishops realized what they had done, they withdrew their support and reaffirmed the creed of the Council of Nicaea and the doctrine of Trinity.
The Official Church continued to become more established, especially in Rome, and finally found unqualified imperial favor during the rule of Theodosius. On being baptized in 380 CE, Theodosius issued a solemn edict, which proclaimed his own faith, and prescribed the religion for his subjects:
“It is our pleasure that all the nations, which are governed by our clemency and moderation, should steadfastly adhere to the religion which was taught by St. Peter to the Romans; which faithful tradition had preserved, and which is now professed by the pontiff of Damascus, and by Peter, bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the discipline of the apostles, and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe the sole deity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; under an equal majesty, and a pious Trinity. We authorize the followers of this doctrine to assume the title of Catholic Christians; and as we judge, that all others are extravagant madmen, we brand them with the infamous name of heretics; and declare that their conven-ticles shall no longer usurp the respectable appellation of churches. Besides the condemnation of Divine justice, they must expect to suffer the severe penalties, which our authority, guided by heavenly wisdom, shall think proper to inflict upon them.” Gibbon, E., “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, 1823, p.400
Shortly after this edict, Theodosius called the famous Council of Constantinople in 381 CE. A hundred and fifty bishops:
“proceeded without much difficulty or delays, to complete the theological system which had been established by the Council of Nicaea. The vehement disputes of the fourth century had been chiefly employed on the nature of the Son of God; and the various opinions, which were embraced concerning the Second, were extended and transferred, by a natural analogy, to a Third person of the Trinity… final and unanimous sentence was pronounced to ratify the equal Deity of the Holy Ghost.” Gibbon, E., “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, 1823, p.408
It had taken nearly four centuries for a doctrine which Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – had never preached to be accepted in his name, and finally established as `the truth’. In the reign of Constantine, the Official Church, or the Roman Catholic Church, had been clearly subservient to the Emperor. In the reign of Theodosius it began to exert its influence over the Emperor:
“The decrees of the Council of Constantinople has ascertained the `true’ standard of the faith; and the ecclesiastics, who governed the conscience of Theodosius, suggested the most effectual methods of persecution. In the space of fifteen years, he promulgated at least fifteen severe edicts against the `heretics’; more especially against those who rejected the doctrine of the Trinity…” Gibbon, E., “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, 1823, p.412
These edicts formed the foundation, and were the origin of all the laws which the Roman Catholic Church subsequently promulgated in its attempts to eliminate all beliefs, especially affirmation of the Divine Unity, other than its own.
The edicts were directed against the leaders, the places of worship, and the persons of the `heretics’. Their leaders were refused the privileges and payments which were so liberally granted to the leaders of the Official Church. Instead they face the heavy penalties of exile and confiscation of property for preaching and practicing their faith. By eliminating the leaders it was hoped that their followers would be compelled by ignorance and hunger to return within the pale of the Catholic Church.
The rigorous prohibition of the use of their places of worship was extended to every possible circumstance in which the `heretics’ might assemble to worship their Lord. Their gatherings, whether public or secret, by day or by night, in cities or in the country, were equally proscribed. The buildings and the land which they had used for worship were confiscated.
All the followers of the `heretical leaders’ were left to the mercy of the general public. The anathema of the Official Church was complemented by the condemnation of the supreme magistrate. Thus a man could commit any outrage against a `heretic’ with impunity from the law. There were thus ostracized from society and excluded from all but menial work. Since they were not permitted to make a will or receive any benefit from a dead person’s will, they soon lost what little property they had.
All citizens of the Empire were encouraged to participate in the elimination of the `heretics’, who were put to death if they persisted in their faith. A special group of people were organized to facilitate the execution of the edicts and to deal with accusations and complaints against `heretics’:
“Every Roman might exercise the right of public accusation, but the office of the `Inquisitor of the Faith’, a name so deservedly abhorred, was first instituted under the reign of Theodosius.” Gibbon, E., “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, 1823, p.413
Thus the origins of all `Inquisitions’ which were instigated by the Roman Catholic Church and which culminated in the notorious Spanish Inquisition are derived not from the teaching of Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him –, but from the dictates of a `HOLY’ Roman Emperor.
With the passage of time the Roman Emperors became even more subservient to the Roman Catholic Church. The coronation of the Emperor became a religion ceremony. He was admitted into the lower orders of the priesthood and was made to anathematize all `heresy’ raising itself against the Holy Catholic Church. In hading him the ring, the Pope told him it was a symbol of his duty to destroy heresy. In girding him with the sword, he was reminded that with this he was to strike down the enemies of the Official Church.
This then is the story of the doctrine of Trinity, and how the Roman Catholic Church originated. Neither this Church, nor its doctrines were instituted or preached by Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him –. Yet in the name of God and Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him –, the Church reached a point where it not only considered itself able to define who a follower of Jesus – peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him – was, but also felt itself obliged to eliminate all those who did not fall within this definition, especially those who affirmed Divine Unity.
From the past, let us now come to present and analyze this Trinity on the basis of Bible which we have today with us, and discuss some of the important points.
As Bible is the basic Doctrine of the Christendom, therefore, like every sensible person let us approach towards the Doctrine of the Christian religion – Bible.
It was an astonishing discovery for me that this ‘Trinity’ does not exist anywhere in the New Testament! Also Jesus never mentioned the trinity and certainly did not explain it in the clearest way.
At first the Christians had a verse of 1 John 5:7-8 from the KJV to back their Trinity theory.
“For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the Water, and the Blood; and these three agree in one.”
1 John 5:7-8
In RSV, you find this verse like this:
“There are three that testify: the Spirit and the water and the blood, and these three agree.” 1 John 5:7-8
When the verse was removed in RSV, it made an affect upon the Christians and doubts regarding there belief on Trinity were raised in people’s mind. Since then, attempts were made to justify the concept of Trinity in some way or the other.
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